Best Training Motivation in 2022
My Potty Training Chart Motivational Kit - Dry-Erase Magnetic Board and 9 Illustrated Magnets - Potty Training Motivation Chart
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Runner's World Training Journal for Beginners: 52 Weeks of Motivation, Training Tips, Nutrition Advice, and Much More for Runners Who Are Just Starting Out
Potty Training Chart for Toddlers Girls, Unicorn Design - Sticker Chart, 4 Week Reward Chart - 175 Cute Stickers, Certificate, Instruction Booklet & Motivational Cards - Bonus Celebratory Crown
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GREAT ART Motivational Poster Set (12 Posters) 23.4 x 16.5 in (59.4 x 42 cm) â€“ Workout Poster, Gym Inspiration Fitness Quotes for Training The Body â€“ Nr.1-12
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The Effect of Pain and Depression on Exercise Motivation
Current research clearly demonstrates the positive effects of exercise on alleviating or eliminating pain and depression; however, the research data also shows that individuals suffering from chronic pain or depression do not participate in exercise.
Each day, more and more individuals are turning towards living a sedentary lifestyle. It has been reported that only 10% of the individuals living in North America took part consistently in some type of exercise program or physical activity (Nigg amp; Courneya, 1997). This finding clearly demonstrates that 90% of the population either do not perform some type of physical activity or exercise on a consistent basis or at all. It is that section of society that detailed research as to why they choose not to engage in an active lifestyle is so critically necessary. Unfortunately, the remaining 10% has a severe issue with which to contend.
The Nigg and Courneya study concluded that 50% of people that begin a structure exercise regime will desist within the first six months; a consistent finding across all age groups (1997). These findings are not only shocking but disheartening as well considering a study conducted by Balde, Alseny, Figueras, Hawkings, and Miller (2003) concluded that regular exercise positively impacts a wide variety of health concerns including pain management and depression. A meta-analysis covering 134 studies concluded that consistent participation in a regular exercise regime improves both physical and mental fitness (Etneir, Salazar, Landers, Petruzzello, Han, amp; Nowell, 1997).
The disparity between the research findings of the positive impact of regular exercise or physical activity on managing depression and pain with the lack of participation by the masses of society has sent up several red flags. The following paper is a brief overview of current theories of exercise motivation, positive benefits of exercise on depression and pain, conclusions, and finally recommendations as to where research should be conducted next.
Several theories abound as to what comprises and drives exercise motivation. Two of the earliest and most popular theories were the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The theory of planned behavior has been defined as a behavior that is performed due to the intention of an individual (Conn, Tripp-Reimer, amp; Maas, 2003; Collette, Kerner amp; Grossman, 2001). In addition to that the performance of the given behavior is determined by three main factors: 1) an individual's perceived control, 2) the attitude toward the given behavior, and 3) norms (2003; 2001). The main purpose of the theory of planned behavior is three-fold: 1) to predict influences on behavior, 2) to identify strategies to change behavior, and 3) to explain behavior (Brown, 1999). The theory of planned behavior grow out of as an extension to the theory of reasoned action and its purpose was to define and predict why individuals chose to or chose not to perform certain actions and behaviors (1999).
The theory of reasoned action was the precursor to the theory of planned behavior. The theory of reasoned action was developed back in 1980 and decreed that behavior is driven by an individual's attitudes and subjective norms (Magee, 2004). Other notable theories in the field today include the Self-Efficacy theory, the Social Cognitive Theory, and the Achievement Goal Theory. Only small portions of the multitude of theories that exist to define and explain this topic have been listed here. Due to the constraints of this paper, these and other theories will not be covered in any depth. The main point of their mention was to make it aware that there are many theories being developed, revised, and tested currently. However it is this researcher's contention that all of the theories in use today only explain the behavior of active individuals. T
he primary foundation upon all of these theories are built is to explain and predict behavior. However, none of the theories adequately account for why the vast majority of individuals in society today are choosing to participate in sedentary lifestyles. When undertaking any physical endeavor there are certain effects that are associated with the activity, the most notable of them is pain. Dealing and managing pain is not a new concept. The ancient Greeks developed an ointment given to the winners only of the Olympic Games to ease the pain from their participation in the athletic contests (Bartels, Swaddling, amp; Adrian, 2020). So how does pain and pain management relate to exercise motivation and participation?
Pain and Exercise Motivation
The prevailing research of the recent years has demonstrated with increasing accuracy and confidence that participating in regular exercise can help alleviate or at the very least manage chronic pain. One research study came to the conclusion that using exercise as a tool to manage pain and stress in individuals can actually improve those individuals' subjective well-being (Martin Ginis, Latimer, McKechine, Ditor, McCartney, Hicks, Bugaresti, amp; Craven, 2003). This study followed 34 spinal cord injury patients over 3 months performing aerobic and resistance training programs. The results included reports of improved quality of life as well as reduced chronic pain and depression (2003).
Another recent study has found that exercise coupled with medical advice proved to improve pain management (Pengel, Refshauge, Maher, Nicholas, Herbert, amp; McNair, 2020). The research study involved 259 volunteers who suffered from subacute low back pain for more than 6 weeks but less than 3 months. The study lasted for 6 weeks and took place in 7 university hospitals and primary care clinics. With all of the research being produce new models and strategies to pain management through exercise are being developed. In a program conducted with adults 50 years or older looked at the current research to develop a new pain management program to help manage pain cause by joint degeneration in the knee (Porcheret, Jordan, amp; Croft, 2020). A four step plan was developed that included actions such as weight loss, physiotherapy, group education sessions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and surgical referral to name a few (2020).
Depression and Exercise Motivation
The debilitating effects of depression play a major role in every individual's daily routine. It is estimated that 19 million adults living in America suffer from some degree of depression (Depression, 2020). Countless numbers of studies have been conducted investigating the effects of depression on exercise motivation and participation over the decades. A group of researchers concluded after examining a variety of other studies conducted between 1996 and 2001 that regular participation in physical activity can be a very effective therapeutic treatment for depression (Herman, Blumenthal, Babyak, Khatri, Craighead, Krishnan, amp; Doraiswamy, 2002). McNeil, LeBlanc, and Joyner's (1991) study added support to this finding with their conclusion that regular exercise is a positive and effective treatment for depression. The effect of exercise on alleviating depression can be seen across age groups.
In 2000, Arent, Landers, and Etnier concluded elderly individuals that participated in regular exercise on a consistent basis enjoyed improved mood states. In addition, another research study concluded exercise participation can reduce or eliminate the effects of mild depression in older adults (McNeil, LeBlanc, amp; Joyner, 1991). In a meta-analysis of studies conducted with rehabilitation patients, it was concluded that the use of traditional therapies in conjunction with regular exercise produced positive effects on emotional disturbances like depression (Kugler, Seelbach, amp; Krüskemper, 1994). Gender does not play a role in the link between depression and exercise. One particular study concluded the self images of women became more positive when those women engaged in regular physical activity (Sawatzky amp; Nairmark, 2002).
In another research design involving women suffering from fibromyalgia, it was concluded that those participants that engaged in weekly physical activity notices a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (Da Costa, Dobkin, Drista, amp; Fitzcharles, 2001). The study followed seventy women diagnosed with fibromyalgia over a 3 year time frame interviewing them at regular intervals.
The research reviewed by this paper has clearly demonstrated the vast positive effects that regular participation in exercise or physical activity has on the body both physically and mentally. Studies such as Martin Ginis et al. have put forth compelling evidence of this positive effect with their research work with spinal cord injury patients. That study concluded that a consistent exercise program engaged in by spinal cord patients improved their quality of life (Martin Ginis, Latimer, McKechine, Ditor, McCartney, Hicks, Bugaresti, amp; Craven, 2003). These positive effects are not only limited to the body but the mind as well.
The research studies of Arent et al., McNeil et al., and Da Costa et al. have all clearly demonstrated the uplifting effects of exercise and physical activity on a person's mood. Da Costa, Dobkin, Drista, and Fitzcharles (2001) found that exercise can enhance a positive mood in women suffering from fibromyalgia. Likewise, McNeil, LeBlanc, and Joyner (1991) concluded that exercise can relieve mild depressive symptoms in older adults. Finally Arent, Landers, and Etnier (2001) found that older adults that participated in regular exercise enjoyed more positive mood states.
It is very apparent that exercise is very good for the body and mind; yet only 50% of individuals that begin an exercise regime stick with it after six months (Nigg amp; Courneya, 1997). This should be a calling out to refocus research efforts on not why individuals choose to participate in exercise or physical activity but as to why do they not participate in regular physical activity or exercise.
There have been few studies conducted that have investigated this particular problem. It is clear that a delicate interaction between motivations, physical and emotional status, and access to venue all play a role in determining whether or not an individual chooses to be active or sedentary. However, unfortunately the exact nature of this relationship is still very much undiscovered and tested.
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older adults: A meta-analytic review [Electronic version]. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 8, 407-430.
Balde, A., Figueras, J., Hawkings, D.A., amp; Miller, J.R. (2003). Physician advice to the
elderly about physical activity. Journal of Aging amp; Physical Activity, 11(1), 90-98. Retrieved on October 23, 2020 from PsycINFO database.
Bartels, E.M., Swaddling, J., and Harrison, A.P. (2020). An ancient Greek pain remedy
for athletes. Pain Practice, 6(3), 212-218. Retrieved on November 7, 2020 from Academic Search Premier database.
Brown, M.K. (1999). Theory of reasoned action/planned behavior overview. University
of Florida. Retrieved on October 1, 2020 from
Conn, V.S., Tripp-Reimer, T., amp; Maas, M.L. (2003). Older women and exercise: Theory
of planned behavior beliefs [Electronic version]. Public Health Nursing, 20(2), 153-163. Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
Da Costa, D.D., Dobkin, P.L., Dritsa, M., amp; Fitzcharles, M.A. (2001). The relationship
between exercise participation and depressed mood in women with fibromyalgia. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 6(3), 310-313. Retrieved on November 1, 2020 from Academic Search Premier database.
Etnier, J.L., Salazar, W., Landers, D.M., Petruzzello, S.J., Han, M., amp; Nowell, P. (1997).
The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport amp; Exercise Psychology, 19, 249-277. Retrieved on October 10, 2020 from PsycINFO database.
Herman, S., Blumenthal, J.A., Babyak, M., Khatri, P., Craighead, W., Edward, K.R. amp;
Doraiswamy, P.M. (2002). Exercise therapy for depression in middle-aged and older adults: Predictors of elderly dropout and treatment failure. Health Psychology, 21(6), 553-563. Retrieved on October 11, 2020 from PsycARTICLES database.
Kerner, M.S. amp; Grossman, A.H. (2001). Scale construction for measuring attitude,
beliefs, perception or control, and intention to exercise. [Electronic version]. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 4(1), 124-131.
Kugler, J., Seelbach, H., amp; Krüskemper, G.M. (1994). Effects of rehabilitation exercise
programmes on anxiety and depression in coronary paients: A meta-analysis. [Electronic version] British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 401-410. The British Psychological Society.
Magee, A. (2004). Theory of reasoned action. Attitude-Behavior Relationship. Retrieved
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Martin Ginis, K.A., Latimer, A.E., McKechnie, K., Ditor, D.S., McCartney, N., Hicks,
A.L., Bugaresti, J., amp; Craven, B.C. (2003). Using ecercise to enhance subjective well-being among people with spinal cord injury: The mediating influences of stress and pain. Rehabilitation Psychology, 48(3), 157-164. Retrieved on November 1, 2020 from Academic Search Premier database.
McNeil, J.K., LeBlanc, E.M., amp; Joyner, M. (1991). The effects of exercise on depressive
symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly. Psychology and Aging, 6(3), 487-488. Retrieved on October 11, 2020 from PsycARTICLES database.
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Nigg, C.R., and Courneya, K.S. (1997). Maintaining attendance at a fitness center: An
application. Behavior Medicine, 23(3), 130-138. Retrieved on October 20, 2020 from PsycINFO database.
Pengel, L.H.M., Refshauge, K.M., Maher, C.G., Nicholas, M.K., Herbert, R., amp; McNair,
P. (2020). Physiotherapist-directed exercise, advice, or both for subacute low back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(11), 787-798. Retrieved on November 3, 2020 form Academic Search Premier database.
Porcheret, M., Jordan, K., amp; Croft, P. (2020). A guide to managing knee pain in older
adults. Journal of Family Practice, 56(6), 433. Retrieved on November 8, 2020 from Academic Search Premier database.
Sawatzky, J.V. and Nairmark, B.J. (2002). Physical activity and cardiovascular health inaging women: A health promotion perspective. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 10(4), 396-413. Retrieved on October 17, 2020 from PsycINFO database.